Posts on topic: sidemount diving


We love diving, whether it's technical diving to explore deep wrecks or just sport diving to search for seahorses or nudibrancs, we can't get enough. We also like to try different equipment and enjoy sharing what we have experienced and learned. We hope you find our blogs interested and that they help you make the most of your equipment and diving.  If you like our blog posts, please feel free to 'like' them and share them with your friends.


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Truk Lagoon - In Deep Ships

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(Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia)


Momokawa Maru

Truk Lagoon claims the world’s greatest wreck diving and with over 60 ships plus aircraft, in a protected lagoon, the claim is justified. On this trip we were invited to join Max Gleeson ( and Lesley Hillyer (AquaSea) as they continued to work on Max’s second documentary on the wrecks of Truk Lagoon (more below). Martin, with his huge ‘underwater selfie stick’, also joined our group.

Buddha, on the Oite

We have been to Chuuk before, using different twin tank systems and although a simple back plate and harness was the better option, it still felt cumbersome in narrow doorways and corridors. This time we went side mount, I had my Stealth 2.0 Classic while Karen used a Stealth Rec wing fitted to her Classic harness.

In switching from cold water to warm, with different suits, tanks and side mount rigging, it took a couple of dives to get weight, trim and ‘boat procedures’ down pat. Operating out of the Blue Lagoon Dive Shop – our boat driver, Rhys, went from intrigued observer to expert assistant, helping to don tanks after just a few dives.

Roller, near the San Francisco Maru

Max’s second video will feature lesser known and deeper wrecks of Truk Lagoon. This worked well with our objectives to revisit the Oite and because I needed a better photo of a road roller lying on the sand with the silouette of the San Francisco Maru in the background. I'd taken a photo on the last trip, not thinking about the ship in the background (hence, I didn't get it right).

Cutting a long story short, these are the ships, our dive depths and some of our notes for those whom might contemplate similar (and there’s much more to see).


Wreck Our depth   What to see
Yubae Maru 30m tableware and saki bottles, props sticking up
Patrol Boat 27m limited damage, interesting valves and gauges
Nagano Maru 58m trucks and road roller in the hold
Kiyosumi Maru 27m torpedo holes at bow, a bicycle, coral decorated masts
Fujisan Maru 58m a large tanker with fuelling pipes, signal light on sand
Oite 62m one of only two destroyers in the lagoon
Momokawa Maru 36m bridge telegraph and phono tubes
Shotan Maru 49m vehicles in the hold, bullets, shells, pots and pans
Unnamed lighter 27m (see below)
Amagisan Maru 38m large forward gun, great exploring
San Fransisco Maru  62m tanks, vehicles, road roller, engine room and lots more
Seiko Maru 41m large decorated masts, bathrooms and mess, telegraph
Taiho Maru 44m (see below)
Kensho Maru 27m large engine room in excellent condition
Aikoku Maru 40m manoeuvring helm and telegraph at stern, galley
Soporo Maru 26m had to happen – 3m visibility, but clear inside


Highlights for the trip were the Oite, San Francisco Maru and two wrecks that had not been visited by divers for many years.

Tank on San Francisco Maru

The Oite is (was) a destroyer and the speed boat in the lagoon, with a slender hull and with two large props, after the engines, fuel and munitions there must have been little space for the crew (respectfully, some are still there). With a limited run time it was exploring on a schedule (luckily, we did two dives on her), but we located a gun in the wreckage of the upturned bow that we hadn’t seen before. The stern section, upright, has a large gun and anti-aircraft guns that make for great photos. The San Francisco Maru was great, as always, and I got the photo of the roller.

The first of the two ‘new’ wrecks, was the Taiho Maru. Blown in two but Max and MacKensey (our guide) found her rear half. Rumour says it lost popularity as a dive site many years ago because the leaking aviation fuel burned divers’ exposed skin – fair enough! The water is clear now and this wreck, lying on its port side, has one of the most photogenic props in the lagoon.

Taiho Maru

The second ‘rediscovery’ was an unnamed lighter, a maintenance vessel and water pump. It also has a pretty prop, partly buried, with a huge coral fan nearby. The pump control room near the bow was fascinating, full of gauges, valves, and pipes going in every direction. We found navigation lanterns and much of the compass, including brass gimbals and the large glass dome.

Side mount proved a great choice for exploring. With much of the wooden decks rotted away it was easier to slip between the steel framework than it had been before with twins, or to roll 90 degrees and just swim through narrow doorways. Sometimes it was the camera arms that were more difficult to get through windows, when you don’t really want to touch the wreck – to preserve both it and yourself. Both Stealth rigs are very streamlined, meaning minimal exertion and less air consumption at depth – I’ll use it again next time.

Unnamed Lighter

Back to Max’s videos. The first video (volume 1), includes some history on Operation Hailstone (why the wrecks are there) and features 15 of the more famous and popular ship wrecks in the lagoon, plus a chapter on aircraft. It is a great video and it might also be the best ‘dive trip planning tool’ that you’ll ever see. Max and Lesley have done an amazing job organising, filming and putting the video together. I’m looking forward to volume 2, and Max has already offered a teaser on Vimeo.

Cheers, Dave

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Attaching a Sidemount Cylinder Bolt Snap

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There are two common ways to attach the lower bolt snaps to sidemount cylinders – cam bands or stainless steel ring clamps. If you're new to sidemount, the following are brief set up instructions for both methods - I hope you find them useful!

attach with cam band

Using cam bands

Cut a 40cm length of 6mm static cord (you can use thinner cord but it must be strong) and heat seal each end with a match or candle. Pass the cord through the ‘eye’ of the bolt snap and tie the ends together. Alternatively you can tie a knot in each end of the cord; in which case you’ll only need about 34cm of cord.

Position the cord under the cam band / tank band and tighten the strap in the normal manner.

Tip: Position the cam buckle on the back of the cylinder (opposite side from the valve opening) with the end flap pointing away from the diver. This way the buckle and end flap should not interfere with hoses that are stowed between the diver’s body and the cylinder.

Using stainless steel ring clamps

To make a large clamp easier to work with, you may wish to gently tighten the ring clap around the cylinder and cut off the end of the steel band leaving about 4 - 5cm protruding past the fastening screw.

attach with ring clamp

Undo the ring clamp fully and place a 4 – 5cm piece of tubing (about 16mm internal diameter) over the clamp’s screw (this is to protect your hands and wetsuit). You may also thread tubular webbing along the length of the steel band, which avoids scratching painted cylinders. Reconnect the ends of the clamp. Note: ring clamps are also available ready made with tubing and webbing.

Cut a 30cm length of 6mm static cord and heat seal each end. Pass the cord through the ‘eye’ of a bolt snap and tie a knot in each end.

Slide the ring clamp over the cylinder, trapping the knotted ends of the cord on one side and the bolt snap on the other side. The bolt snap can be positioned either above or below the clamp.

Ensure the ring clamp sits level around the cylinder and tighten with the bolt inside the section of tubing with it located over the cord. If you don’t have webbing on the clamp, bend the end of the steel strap inwards to avoid it catching.


The location for bolt snaps will depend on if you are attaching aluminium cylinders to D-rings near your hip or steel cylinders to rear flat rings or a butt plate. It depends on if you are using simple bungee loops or bungees with bolt snaps connecting to shoulder D-rings (the position of the cylinders will change with any 'twist' created when attaching the bungee). It even depends on the length of the cord and bolt snap, and the position of the cam band / ring clamp – so you’ll need to experiment. For steel cylinders attached to the Stealth's rear flat rings, and simple loop bungees, I find it best with the bolt snap lined up with the valve extension post (opposite to the hand wheel).

If you start by using a cam band / tank band attachment, you (or your buddy) can make adjustments underwater until you find the 'right spot'.

The loop of cord connecting the bolt snap should be about 2cm long, out from under the band / clamp, to enable it to move freely and so that you can get your fingers around it when connecting cylinders.

After a trial you may be able to shorten the cords but the above lengths should work to start.


Choosing bolt snaps:

After a trial you may be able to shorten the cords but the above lengths should work to start.

Bolt snaps should be made from marine grade stainless steel (e.g. #316) or brass. 90 to 100mm bolt snaps are common but longer bolt snaps can be easier to handle if wearing gloves.

Some people prefer to put their finger through the bolt snap’s ‘eye’ when clipping cylinders on. In this case, the bolt snap needs a larger sized ‘eye’.


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Stealth 2.0 Sidemount Shopping 'Wish List'

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The XDEEP Stealth 2.0 is at the heart of the best sidemount system available and the one that you should own, but what else might you need to be a fully equipped sidemount diver?  This article discusses the Stealth 2.0 options and accessories that I considered, over a period of time, when putting together my rig.  Hopefully it will help you get started a bit quicker!

Stealth 2.0

Stealth 2.0 harness Accessories

The adjustable Central Weight Pocket (CWP) is one feature that puts the Stealth ahead of the rest.  The medium CWP (6kg / 13.2lb) works in most situations but a larger (12kg / 26.5lb) CWP may work better with thick dry suits and aluminium cylinders – when you need extra weight.  A small (3kg / 6.6lb) CWP is also made by XDEEP, but the medium CWP offers flexibility even if it is less than half-filled on tropical dives.  Strange as it may sound, I use a medium weight pocket but move my weights from the bottom to the top of the CWP when changing from light weight to heavy rubber fins – it gives me perfect trim.

weight pockets

Additional weight can be added with dumpable weight pockets or trim pockets. The XDEEP dumpable weight pockets (also used with the Hydros and Zeos) come in two sizes and bolt on to the flat square brackets on the waist band. These pockets can sit between your hips and the cylinders, which can push the cylinders out from the body and reduce streamlining (a little).

So unless a lot of weight is needed the larger CWP or trim pockets may be preferable.

XDEEP trim pockets come in two sizes: 3kg (6.6lb) or 6kg (13.2lb) per pair of pockets. These can be threaded onto the shoulder straps or the waist band.  For single cylinder sidemount, with a steel cylinder, the larger trim pocket is a good solution for a 3kg counterweight.

trim pockets

Each Stealth harness includes four rubber rings on the waist band; two fixed with a tri-glide and two floating (to optimise the trim of aluminium cylinders as they get lighter). These rings are very strong and flexible but swapping to steel D-rings can be easier to feel when wearing gloves. XDEEP also offer an optional butt plate for the Stealth, which makes it even easier to clip on steel cylinders when wearing gloves – but some people just like the butt plate as a place carrying accessories.

Additional D-rings and tri-glides maybe added to the harness to make connection points for accessories. Tri-glides on the shoulder straps with thin bungee loops are a convenient way to hold the main loop bungee (for the top of each cylinder) in position.

Regulators, Hoses and Cylinder Valves.
First stage regulators with LP ports on a swivel turret, and a fifth port on the end, are ideal, such as the Tecline R2 TEC Sidemount Set. The swivel turret allows hoses to be stowed neatly and then rotated to deploy the regulators when needed, while the SPGs remain in position.

The end ports on the first stage allow shorter BCD inflator and dry suit hoses to be used, to minimise clutter. If you want to use your existing regulators, and they don’t have a 90 degree port, you could try a 90 degree hose adapter for the first stage.  For many people, a 25 - 30cm LP hose works best between the end port of the first stage regulator and the Stealth’s BCD inflator, however most SM regulator sets include 20cm hoses, which is just a bit short for the inflator, but is fine for a dry suit.  For particularly large divers, longer BCD and drysuit hoses may be needed.  Some people may find that a longer or shorter BCD corrugated hose and inflator hose suits them better, but for safety the corrugated inflator hose must be long enough to allow for oral inflation.

Left and right sided cylinder valves provide the best access for valve shut-down drills and emergency procedures. Valves used for backmount twinsets with blanking plugs, where the manifold would normally go but obviously not needed here, are a good solution.

Connecting your Cylinders.

bolt snap

Cylinders are attached to the harness with a bolt snap (with a larger ring for hands with gloves or just for easier management) near the base of the cylinder and a bungee around the neck.  Two options for connecting the bolt snap are a webbing tank band or a steel ring clamp.

Bolt snaps are secured by a strong cord threaded through the bolt snap and under the cam band / ring clamp. Rubber retaining bands may be used to hold the hoses neatly on the cylinders but you can also make your own using some of the bungee provided with the Stealth – although I do find that these tend to roll off the top of the cylinder.

Accessories.  What accessories do you need - cutting tools, an SMB for open water, torches, wet notes, a reel, spools and line markers? I will often carry these, depending on the dive, and I always include some double-ended bolt snaps (very handy), a spare regulator necklace and spare bungee. I have a small pouch clipped on to my crotch strap D-ring but I’m really looking forward to the new (and larger) XDEEP pouch.

Note that the Stealth comes with a bracket to mount a primary light canister on the crotch strap.

The Stealth 2.0 Sidemount diver’s shopping “Wish List”:

  • Sidemount system:
    • Stealth 2.0 complete set
    • Central Weight Pocket (CWP) – appropriate size.
    • Butt Plate
  • Additional weight pockets:
    • Trim pockets – which size?
    • Dumpable weight pockets – which size?
  • Additional / optional hardware:
    • D-rings
    • tri-glides
  • Sidemount Regulator Set
    • R2 TEC sidemount regulator set
    • 25-30cm Inflator hose
  • For cylinders:
    • Left and right cylinder valves (with blanking plugs?)
    • Webbing tank bands or Stainless Steel ring clamps?
    • Bolt snaps and cord
    • Hose retaining bands or bungee
  • Accessories:
    • Emergency cutting tool
    • SMB
    • Reel
    • Spools
    • Line markers
    • Bolt snaps
    • an XDEEP pouch for backups and spares

Happy shopping – hope your wishes come true!!


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Stealth 2.0 Single Sidemount Diving

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Stealth 2.0 Single Sidemount Diving

The Stealth is the perfect harness for technical sidemount diving and you can also benefit when diving with a single tank.  This is great if you want to switch between technical and recreational diving ‘modes’ on holidays, and the change only takes as long as it does to swap a regulator – sidemount for all occasions!

Weight and balance

The first question most people ask about single-tank sidemount is “aren’t you unbalanced?”  It may look that way but when set up correctly it certainly doesn’t feel that way.  You just need to consider the buoyancy characteristics of the cylinder and how it effects balance.

If diving with a standard aluminium cylinder, which becomes ‘positively buoyant’ late in the dive, you may not need to adjust any weights at all.  Actually, aluminium cylinders combined with a first stage regulator are usually just negative at the end of a dive, and for many people the weight difference is not significant.  However, a 2lb (1kg) counterweight (on the opposite side of your body from the cylinder) can improve balance earlier in the dive.   Either a trim weight in a pocket or a threaded weight will work.  Any heavy accessories (e.g. a large torch) may also work as a counterweight when located on your opposite side from the cylinder.


If you’re a photographer and spend time stationary (and not on the bottom) the effect of the cylinder’s weight on your balance will be more noticeable and you may want a moveable counterweight.  When the cylinder is on the left side the counterweight starts on the right side and is relocated closer to the centre later in the dive.  A 2lb (1kg) weight in a moveable trim pocket or simply bungeed onto the Stealth’s waistband can work well enough.

Importantly, counterweights are not additional weight, they are your existing weights repositioned – there is no benefit to over-weighting.

With steel cylinders there is no choice but to use a counterweight.  The amount of weight depends on the cylinder and where the counterweight is located; the further to the right (e.g. on the hip) then less lead may be needed.  For example, a typical 10.5 litre 232 bar steel cylinder can be balanced by about 6lbs (3kg) of counterweight in a trim pocket sitting low on the Stealth’s shoulder strap.  We (my wife does this too) have found this to be a good place for the trim pocket because we don’t need to reconfigure anything when changing between single and twin cylinders – the trim pocket just stays there.  We use ingot style rectangular weights and we can just squeeze 6lbs (3kg) into the small xDeep trim pockets (note: the trim pockets are not ‘specified’ for this weight but they are so well made that we have never had a problem); however, the larger trim pocket would probably be more suitable.

Before diving single-sidemount with a steel cylinder, we recommend that you find out more about its buoyancy characteristics.  A good place to look is the manufacturer’s website, which often list full and empty buoyancy characteristics.  Allow a bit more negative buoyancy for the first stage regulator and decide on the counterweight you need.  Then go for a dive or three - any excuse for a dive is a good one!

Single Sidemount Regulators and Cylinders


First stage regulators with a swivel turret are great for twin cylinders.  Changing to a single cylinder simply means adding another second stage regulator to the left side first stage (ie, the one with the BCD inflator hose).  However, divers new to sidemount may want to use their existing, recreational regulators.  There are many different regulators available, but in this case I’ll refer to the Apeks XTX200 – regulators that I’ve dived with for a few years with both backmount twins and singles.

The first stage has four LP ports, two on each side in roughly parallel positions.  For a standard back-mount single configuration, one change is essential.  With the cylinder on the left of the body and a standard right-feed regulator hose passing behind the neck, a standard regulator hose is too short.  There are two simple options to fix this (and not have the hose looped in front of your face).  First is to use the alternate air source on its longer hose if the ease of breathing is similar to your primary regulator, but this leaves the primary regulator on a shorter hose if you need to share air.  I prefer a second option, which is to fit a 90 degree swivel to the primary second stage regulator, the same as I use on the left regulator for regular sidemount (Karen, my wife, prefers a 360 degree swivel).

Using cylinder valves with an extension post (opposite side from the hand wheel / valve knob) is ideal with a loop bungee as the bungee rotates and pulls the cylinder into the diver’s side.  For cylinder valves without an extension post the bungee may have to loop under the valve and connect to a D-ring with a bolt snap.  For this method the bungee does not pull the same way, and the lower cylinder bolt snap should be repositioned in-line with the valve opening.  Of course, you could have the cylinder valve face away from you and loop the bungee around the hand wheel – many options are possible.

When positioning the regulator on the cylinder valve, and using standard length hoses, I prefer to rotate the first stage so that the both regulator hoses point up and the inflator hose, dry suit hose (when using a dry suit) and SPG hose point down the cylinder.   The inflator and dry suit hoses are held under hose retaining bands (or bungee again!) and are turned in towards the diver’s body.  From there they can be pulled out and connected onto the BCD inflator and dry suit QR posts.  The dry suit hose is usually longer than the BCD inflator hose, but for the Stealth I swap these around because the BCD inflator needs the longer hose.

The regulator and SPG hoses are held on the cylinder and looped away from the inflator hoses.  The first hose being the SPG hose which I loop down and back up so that the SPG is in an easy to read position.  Next the alternate air source hose, initially pointing up from the cylinder, is looped down the side of the cylinder, under the retaining bands, and back up so that the second stage regulator rests near the top of the cylinder.  In this position the SPG is easy to read and the alternate air source is easy to donate if needed.  The hose for the primary regulator is usually too short to loop under the retaining bands, so I wrap a bungee necklace around the first stage regulator to keep it neat when carrying the cylinder. Now it’s ready to be put on whether you are in a boat, on shore, or already in the water. 



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